Why it doesn't work
Essentially, homeopathy is based on the belief that like cures like. In practice, this would mean that different symptoms would be treated using small amounts of substances that in bigger doses would cause them.
I do acknowledge that this "like cures like" principle has been scientifically researched, with the name hormesis. Because of these studies, it's widely accepted that a small amount of a substance can in some cases have a different effect on a cell than a higher dose. However, we don't know how rare this phenomenon is, and the alternate effect it causes isn't necessarily positive or desired at all.
Practicioners of homeopathy generalize this very unclear and controversial theory by thinking anything that causes a symptom can cure it in low doses. For example, in 2018, naturopath and homeopathic practicioner Anke Zimmermann gave a 4-year-old boy a remedy containing the saliva of a rabid dog, to treat the boy's supposed anger management issues (which, by the way, are perfectly natural for children that age), aggression and poor sleep, claiming that the solution "cured" him. If the remedy actually contained the virus, this woman was literally endangering a child's life for some crazy pseudoscientific experiment, while probably charging the parents a significant sum of money for it.
Additionally, there is another, arguably even bigger problem with homeopathy. Homeopathic medicine is produced using a method called "potentization." This means mixing 1 part of the desired ingredient with 9 parts of water, then shaking the solution, then mixing 1 part of the mixture with 9 parts of water again, and repeating this process over and over again. Homeopaths claim that the less of the ingredient the final solution contains, the more effective it is. This leads to the ingredients being diluted into nonexistence: in almost all homeopathic remedies, not a single molecule remains of the original ingredient. And even remedies that do have something else than water or alcohol in them only contain a couple of molecules of it: not enough to cause any effect. Again, none of this has been scientifically proven to work, but to be honest, homeopathic "doctors" don't seem to care about science anyway.
Research on homeopathy
Most medical institutions around the world have rejected homeopathy as pseudoscientific nonsense, and rightfully so. In 2015, Australia's National Health and Medical Research Council, one of the world's biggest and most respected health institutions, conducted a massive study on homeopathy, with over 1800 different studies systematically analyzing papers and documents related to the topic. They concluded that there was "no good quality evidence to support the claim that homeopathy is effective in treating health conditions." The NHMRC had already come to the same conclusion earlier, in 2014, when they found homeopathy to have no effect in treating any of the 68 different health conditions included in the study. In 2010, BMJ (earlier known as the British Medical Journal) wrote an article proving that complementary medicines, such as homeopathy, are absolutely useless as substitutes for conventional medicine. Even back in 2002, the British Pharmacological Society debunked homeopathy as completely ineffective.
NHMRC study 2015:
BMJ article 2010:
BPS article 2002: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1874503/
These were only a few examples of the overwhelming majority of evidence clearly showing that homeopathy has no real curative powers. It's a fact at this point.
Most of, if not all of the "evidence" supporting homeopathy, however, is based on people's personal experiences. The problem with this is that these experiences originate from the subjective viewpoints of people who might be biased towards homeopathy, thinking it cured them for sure, when in reality there are tons of other possible reasons to someone recovering from a health condition. It could have been another treatment that was used alongside homeopathy that did the trick. It could have been a change of lifestyle. It could have simply been time: the human body fights for its health by itself. We all have powerful immune systems designed for keeping us alive and well. Besides, what about all the people who didn't experience any help from homeopathy? We never see the homeopaths talk about them.
There is only one way homeopathic treatment could possibly help a human win over a disease or health condition: placebo. But it's an effect that applies to literally everything. You could eat a piece of candy, and believing in it enough, it could make you feel less ill. Funnily enough, that's basically what homeopathy is all about.
Why it's unethical
Homeopathic doctors act like kind-hearted and helpful people, who embrace the idea of "natural" medicine as a way of healing for everyone. Some of them, I'm sure, truly believe their own lies. But this empathy is also a way to attract customers. Homeopathy is a big business, and a very greedy one.
These mixtures of water and alcohol are being sold to unsuspecting people as a risk-free, non-invasive cure to a plethora of different diseases/symptoms, usually as a liquid or in the form of small sugar pills. The problem with this is that even though they have no effect whatsoever, they are highly expensive, disguise themselves as real medicine and deceive people who often have chronic, painful, difficult, crippling diseases or conditions that they are desperately looking for relief for. The homeopathic industry not only lies to people and takes their money, it can even worsen public health by discouraging people from seeking help from proven, conventional medicine, guiding them towards homeopathy and other nonsensical alternative treatments instead. This is a true problem.
Lastly, I want to link you to a video about homeopathy made by a brilliant knowledge-spreading Youtube channel that some of you may have heard of: Kurzgesagt (In a nutshell). This video is what made me aware of the many flaws of homeopathy in the first place, and for that I'm endlessly thankful to the creators of it!
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